Hemp Seed Oil

Hemp Seed Oil is a natural oil, cold extracted  from Hemp Seeds – without the use of chemicals, preservatives or additives. We use proprietary varieties of hemp seed specifically selected for their fatty acid profile.  Our hemp seed is grown by world class producers under contract on either a Certified Organic or Conventional production, free of in-crop pesticides and herbicides. Our hemp seeds are cold pressed at temperatures well below 25°C.

The freshly pressed Hemp Seed Oil is then clarified via our cold filtering technology which removes any natural suspended solids. Our Hemp Seed Oil is then packaged in an oxygen-free environment to protect this delicate oil and assure a fresh, quality product with increased shelf life.

Hemp Seed Oil is low in saturated fats, a source of polyunsaturated fatty acids and is free from trans fat and cholesterol. 15 ml of Hemp Seed Oil provides 8g Omega-6, 2.5g Omega-3, zero trans fat, zero cholesterol and 10% Vitamin E.

Hemp Seed Oil is recognized by the World Health Organization as a natural anti-oxidant and the only balanced (perfect 3:1 ratio of Omega 6 to Omega 3) source of Essential Fatty Acids (EFAs) and is also a good source of Gamma-Linolenic Acid (GLA).

Hemp Seed Oil has a high content of the enzyme lipase, which is a superior non-invasive chelation therapy for removing plaque build-up (undigested protein and cholesterol) from arteries and cell membrane.

Hemp Seed Oil should be taken daily because EFAs support the cardiovascular, reproductive, immune and nervous systems.  Essential Fatty Acids are also needed for proper growth in children, particularly for neural development and maturation of sensory systems, with male children having higher needs than females. Foetuses and breast-fed infants also require an adequate supply of EFAs through the mother’s dietary intake.

Cannabidiol (CBD) has also been found to be present in Hemp Seed Oil as well. Although not explicitly produced within the seed, traces of Cannabinoid “contamination” have been reported to result from the pressing of the oil. The presence of CBD is significant because it has documented anti-convulsive, anti-epileptic, anti-cancer and anti-microbial properties. Although the levels of CBD in the oil are typically small, many health benefits may still be gained from its presence.

While many studies exist which base the nutritional value of Hemp Seed Oil primarily on its fatty acid content, there are other constituents which are contained within the oil that possess beneficial properties as well. Natural products such as  β-sitosterol and Methyl Salicylate and Terpenes complement the nutritious value of Hemp Seed Oil and increases its effectiveness as a functional food.

While there are many sources for Omega-3 PUFA in the diet, Hemp Seed Oil is exceptionally rich in these compounds, which are usually present in the nutritionally optimal ratio of Omega-6 to Omega-3 PUFA (LA to LNA) of 3:1 (Erasmus, 1999).  LA concentrations normally range from 52-62% of total fatty acid composition while LNA concentrations ranges from 12-23%.

As a result of the change in human dietary habits within the past century, the intake of trans fatty acids has increased dramatically. Studies have shown conclusively that trans fatty acids increase total cholesterol levels and diminish the levels of ‘‘good’’ high density lipo-protein (HDL). By supplementing the diet with high levels of unsaturated cis fatty acids, some of these negative effects can be reversed (Erasmus, 1999). With respect to modern diets, the amount of LA consumed compared to the amount of LNA consumed has increased exceptionally in the past 100-150 years (Simopoulos, 1994). This disparity has disrupted the proper balance of dietary essential fatty acids that is considered nutritionally optimal. In addition to the lack of these essential fatty acids in the diet, factors such as stress and disease weaken the enzymatic activity that promotes the conversion of LA to GLA (Deferne & Pate, 1996). Therefore, a supplementation of LA can be helpful to alleviate this potential deficiency.

In an ideal diet, the daily consumption of fats should not exceed 15-20% of total caloric intake. Approximately one-third of these fats should be the Essential Fatty Acids in their proper ratio. For a 2500 calorie/day diet, LA intake should be 9-18 grams/day, and LNA intake should be 6-7 g/day (Erasmus, 1999). This goal can easily be accomplished through the daily consumption of 3 to 5 tablespoons of Hemp Seed Oil. Although these are the ideal amounts to maintain a healthy, balanced diet, certain stresses to the body warrant increased consumption of Essential Fatty Acids, particularly the Omega-3 PUFA such as LNA.

Omega-3 PUFA have been reported to have an inhibitory effect on cancer and tumour growth. Increased consumption of Omega-3 PUFA have not been shown to exhibit any negative side effects, but their beneficial qualities have been repeatedly confirmed. In addition to their anti-cancer properties, Omega-3 PUFA have been shown to lower blood pressure and blood cholesterol levels, help normalize fat metabolism and decrease insulin dependence in diabetics, increase overall metabolic rate and membrane fluidity and exhibit anti-inflammatory properties, specifically with regard to relieving arthritis (Erasmus, 1999).

The benefits of Omega-3 PUFA are not only present when taken in large quantities but the regular intake of recommended levels (2-2.5% of caloric intake/day) can be sufficient to provide many of its nutritional qualities.

The essential role of LA and LNA in the human diet is related to both the inter-mediary and end products that they become through several biochemical pathways. LA is metabolized to GLA and subsequently Arachidonic Acid (AA). LNA is metabolized to both Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA) and Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) (Simopoulos, 1994). EPA and AA are metabolized by the body into Eicosanoids.

These compounds ultimately become the Prostaglandins which affect such varied functions as blood clotting, inflammation response, and immune-regulation (Erasmus, 1999). During the synthesis of Prostaglandins from AA and EPA, there is a biochemical competition within the cell membrane (Simopoulos, 1994). The AA has a tendency to move out of the cell membrane and form type 2 Prostaglandins. EPA tends to promote the retention of AA within cell membranes, thereby preventing the formation of the unwanted type 2 Prostaglandins (Erasmus, 1999). When the ratio of the initial starting compounds is shifted in favour of LA however, it becomes more difficult for the products from LNA to sufficiently promote the retention of AA within the cell membrane. The resultant increase in type 2 Prostaglandin production leads to increased platelet aggregation and inflammation (Erasmus, 1999). The benefits of having the proper ratios of fatty acids, with respect to the metabolized products of LA and LNA, are the production of the proper amounts of Prostanoids and Leukotrienes which have anti-thrombotic, anti-vasoconstrictive and anti-inflammatory properties (Simopoulos, 1994).

The additional naturally occurring elements in Hemp Seed Oil

As mentioned before, Hemp Seed Oil is mostly known for its high quality and quantity Essential Fatty Acids. However, the oil also contain other natural occurring products. These natural products, such as Cannabidiol, β-Caryophyllene, Myrcene, β-Sitosterol,  α/γ-Tocopherol,and Methyl Salicylate may confer further health benefits to Hemp Seed Oil in addition to fatty acids.

Cannabidiol

Pharmacological Properties of Cannabidiol. Cannabidiol (CBD) has been shown to possess several desirable pharmacological proper ties which are exhibited in absence of the psychoactive properties of THC (Karler & Turkanis, 1981), which are usually associated with the cannabinoids. Although the levels of CBD normal detected in the oil is low, normally at 10 mg/kg, its presence could still provide some benefit. CBD has been reported to reduce tremors in dystonic movement disorders with minimal side effects (Consroe et al., 1986). Patients receiving doses of CBD ranging from 100-600 mg/day had tremor reductions of 20-50% (Consroe et al., 1986). The anticonvulsant and anti-epileptic activity of CBD has also been well documented (Karler et al., 1973; Karler & Turkanis, 1981). CBD has been found to be relatively selective with respect to the central nervous system (CNS), in contrast to THC (Karler & Turkanis, 1981). Its anti-convulsant activity is on the same order of magnitude of THC, but unlike THC, it lacks psychoactivity. CBD’s added efficacy as an anti-epileptic, without the associated side effects of psycho-activity, give it great pharmacological potential.

Analgesic and anti-inflammatory potential has been reported in studies as well (Formukong et al., 1988). CBD has been shown to inhibit both the induction of phenyl benzoquinone (PBQ) induced writhing and tetradecanoyl phorbol-acetate (TPA) induced erythema (Formukong et al., 1988). The mechanism by which CBD achieves its anti-inflammatory properties is possibly related toits effect on arachidonate metabolism (Formukong et al., 1988).

Anti-microbial activity has also been reported for CBD. Specifically, CBD has been shown to inhibit the growth in Gram-positive bacteria such as Streptomyces griseus and Staphylococcus aureus (Ferenczy et al. 1958).

β-Sitosterol

Another component of Hemp Seed Oil with several reported activities is β-sitosterol. Although studies have primarily demonstrated the efficacy of β-sitosterol in reducing hypercholesterolemia, additional anti-viral, anti-fungal and anti-inflammatory properties have been studied and observed (Malini & Vanithakumari, 1990).

Plant sterols have been known to affect plasma cholesterol levels by blocking cholesterol absorption through crystallization and co-precipitation (Mattson et al., 1982). Within the intestinal lumen, phytosterols reduce cholesterol solubility by excluding it from micelles, thereby preventing its absorption. In addition, competition exists between the sterols and cholesterol for uptake into the intestinal mucosa (Lees et al., 1977).  A quantitative representation of this can be seen in human studies.

Patients given 500 mg of cholesterol daily in their diets in addition to 1 g of β-Sitosterol showed decreased cholesterol absorption. Mean reduction levels were 42%, demonstrating the efficacy of β-Sitosterol even at low concentrations (Mattson et al., 1982

β-Sitosterol seems to be particularly effective in cholesterol uptake inhibition, especially when delivered through dietary fats (Lees et al., 1977; Mattson et al., 1982). No appreciable decreases in efficacy were observed, even with long-term administration (Lees et al., 1977). In addition, lack of toxicity and little, or no side effects have been attributed to β-Sitosterol, making it an attractive option for long-term cholesterol reducing therapy (Lees et al., 1977; Mattson et al., 1982).

Although not studied as extensively as its hypocholesterolemic properties, relevant anti-viral and anti-inflammatory activities of β-sitosterol have been shown. Isolated ethanolic extracts of Hedychium spicatum containing β-Sitosterolshowed anti-inflammatory activity (Sharma et al., 1975).

Tocopherols

 Anti-oxidant properties of Tocopherol s have been known and exploited for some time. Traditional supplementation of Tocopherol s has primarily focused on its α form. Many plants however, including hemp, tend to have significantly higher levels of γ-Tocopherol . Although both exhibit antioxidant activity, their differing metabolic paths confer other specific activities to their respective isomeric forms.

α-Tocopherol is the primary (usually exclusive) Tocopherol  in formulated vitamin E supplements. It is preferentially secreted into plasma as opposed to γ-Tocopherol which tends to be found in the intestine (Stone & Papas, 1997).  It is α-Tocopherol’s concentration in the plasma that gives it properties other than that of an antioxidant. α-Tocopherol may induce increased membrane fluidity through intercalation between fatty acyl chains in the membrane bilayer (Berlin et al. 1992). Data suggests that there is a direct correlation between increased fluidity and α-Tocopherol  content in the membrane (Berlin et al., 1992).

The biological activity of α-Tocopherol tends to be significantly higher than γ-Tocopherol as a result of its greater affinity to be secreted by the liver into very-low density lipoproteins (Stone & Papas, 1997).

This increased bioactivity does not however, make α-Tocopherol a more effective antioxidant; γ-Tocopherol inhibits phosphatidylcholinehydroperoxide formation more effectively at low peroxynitrite concentrations than does α-Tocopherol (Wolf, 1997). γ-Tocopherol has been shown to have significant antioxidant effects in vitro even at concentrations less than 50 ppm (Lampi, Hopia, & Piironen, 1997). In addition, γ-Tocopherol  is overall more effective in protecting against coronary heart disease, as compared to α-Tocopherol  supplementation (Wolf, 1997).

Perhaps the most interesting activity of γ-Tocopherol  which has not yet been widely studied, is its ability to act as an anti-cancer agent, specifically with respect to colon cancer. Because γ-Tocopherol  is secreted via the bile into the intestine and faecal material, it can inhibit lipid peroxidation and reduce the formation of mutagenic peroxidation products in the bowel (Stone & Papas, 1997). Ultimately, by being excreted into the colon, as opposed to being active in the plasma, γ-Tocopherol  is able to minimize DNA damage caused by reactive nitrogen oxide species (Stone & Papas, 1997).

Within Hemp Seed Oil, γ-Tocopherol  is present in significantly higher quantities than α-Tocopherol .  They both however, play an important role as antioxidants in their respective physiological systems

Terpenes

The presence of several terpenes were confirmed in the oil, the most abundant of which were β-caryophyllene and myrcene which were found at 740 mg/L and 160 mg/L, respectively. These terpenes impart Hemp with its characteristic smell.

Some pharmacological properties of β-caryophyllene are anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective activities. In addition, it has been reported that myrcene exhibits anti-oxidant properties (Duke, 1999).

The presence of β-caryophyllene and myrcene, even if only present as “contamination” components, add beneficial value to an already nutritionally important food product.

Methyl Salicylate (Oil of Wintergreen)

The medical benefits of plant salicylates have been enjoyed by people for centuries. Today aspirin or acetylsalicylic acid, a close relative of methyl salicylate, is one of the most widely used drugs in the world because of its antipyretic, anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. Once injected, methyl salicylate can be hydrolyzed to salicylic acid, a common active ingredient of aspirin and most other salicylates. Thus, pharmacological effects of methyl salicylate are similar to those of aspirin. Also, millions of people regularly take low doses of salicylates (aspirin) to reduce the risk of heart attacks, strokes and cancer. Methyl salicylate deserves particular attention as a beneficial component of Hemp Seed Oil, even if present in trace quantities.

Product Care

Due to the high content of precious fragile EFAs, Hemp Seed Oil should never be used for frying or cooking, however it can be poured over pasta to give extra flavour. It may be used straight (1-2 tablespoons per day, or as directed by a doctor) or in place of all other vegetable oils i.e. salad dressings, sauces, marinades and low temperature cooking (below 25˚C).

Hemptons’ organic Hemp Seed oil is cold-pressed at temperatures below 20˚ Celsius in an oxygen-free environment and nitrogen capped to maintain freshness.

Hemp Seed Oil requires cool and dark storage conditions – it is the very thing that makes Hemp Seed Oil such a valuable product that makes it vulnerable to spoilage – its high Essential Fatty Content content.

An opened container will last for ten- to twelve weeks in the refrigerator but should optimally be used within one- to two weeks.

An unopened container can be stored indefinitely in the deep freezer and one year in the refrigerator.

An unopened container can last four to six weeks if stored below temperatures of 25˚ Celsius and away from direct sunlight.

Suggested Daily Oil Dosage

  • Adults:  1 to 2 tablespoons a day (approximately 1 tablespoon per 45Kgs of body weight)*
  • Children over 14 months:  2 to 4 teaspoons* 
  • Babies under 14 months:  1 to 2 teaspoons a day*

Capsules :

  • Adults:  2 Capsules 3 times a day*
  • Babies under 14 months:  Not recommended as they may choke (we recommend giving babies under 14  months   raw Hemp Seed Oil – 1 to 2 teaspoons per day)*
  • Children over 14 months:  2 to 4 capsules (please administer under supervision to ensure the child does not choke)

             *  always taken with food

This amount should provide between 8 to 16 grams of Omega 6 EFA and between 3 to 6 grams of Omega 3 EFA in a normal adult body.

Nutritional Values

Each 15ml (1 Tablespoon) contains the following Essential Fatty Acids

Linoleic Acid (Omega 6)   54.8%
Alpha Linolenic Acid (Omega 3)   18.1%
Oleic Acid (Omega 9)   11.2%
Palmitic Acid   6.8%
Gamma Linolenic Acid (GLA)   4.8%
Stearic Acid   2.4%
Octadecatetraenoic Acid   1.4%
Eicosenoic Acid   0.3%
Behenic Acid   0.3%

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